Four romances op. 11 by Pylyp Kozytsky: under the sign of modernism
The article is devoted to early vocal works of P. Kozytsky. Mostly likely because of political situation, only a few opuses of early period of creativity of Ukrainian composer have survived until our times. Among them – Four romances for voice and piano op. 11. It is stated, that we can see modernistic vector of search in this opus. It is remarkable that poetic verses only of contemporary to Kozytsky authors has attracted his attention. Kozytsky became the first Ukrainian composer who wrote music to poem of Rabindranath Tagore, in particular, to his collection of verses named ―The Gardener‖. There was a great wave of attention to works of this Indian poet, composer and philosopher in Western Europe in the first third of 20th century. Kozytsky in his musical interpretation of Tagore (in Ukrainian translation by Y. Siry) is not trying to reflect the oriental color, but instead he conveys different the psychological shades of this poetry. The same kind of perception is represented in the work of Leos Janacek – ―The wandering madman‖ for men’s choir with tenor, baritone and soprano solo, which was written in 1922 year (the same with Kozytsky) on verses from ―The Gardener‖ too. There was a row of other acknowledged Western Europe composers who turned to the poetry of Tagore around the same time. Among them – D. Milhaud, K. Shymanovsky, A. Zemlinsky. Other romances of opus 11 are written on verses of Ukrainian poets: P. Phylypovich (the poet of Executed Renaissance) and close comrade of Kozytsky P. Tychina (who had similar artististic intentions with composer and was at the same artistic circle with him).It is stated, that the whole opus can be considered as cycle, which reflects different stages of life of a woman. Cycle also has apparant links to theatrical art which are reflected in the way composer uses marks. But, regardless of brightness of the music of Four romances op. 11, modernistic intentions of young composes were, unfortunately, changed to another way.
2. Gordiichuk, M. (1985). Phylyp Kozytsky. Kyiv: ―Muzychna Ukraina‖ [in Ukrainian].
3. Gordiichuk, M. (1969). Ukrainska radyanska symfonichna myzyka / Akademia nauk Ukrainskoi RSR; Instytut mystetsvoznavstva, folklorystyky ta etnografii im. M. Rylskogo. Kyiv: ―Muzychna Ukraina‖. [in Ukrainian].
4. Zharkov, A. (1991). Tsykl ―Chetyre romansa‖ F. Kozitskogo v kontekste teoreticheskih vozzrenii B. Yavorskogo. Voprosy analiza vokalnoy muzyki. Tematicheskii zbornik nauchnyh trudov. Kiev. [in Russian].
5. Rzhevska, M. (2005). Na zlami chasiv. Muzyka naddnipryanskoi Ukrainy pershoi tretyny XX stolittia u sotsiokulturnomu konteksti epohy. Kyiv: Avtograf. [in Ukrainian].
6. Tagor, R. Sadovnyk: lirych. poezii; per. Yur. Sirogo. Kyiv: Dzvin. [in Ukrainian].
7. Telniuk, S. (1990). Molodyi ya, molodyi… poetychnyi svit Pavla Tychiny (1906 – 1925). Kyiv: ―Dnipro‖. [in Ukrainian].